Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture
Development of acupuncture
In 1899, Liu Zhongheng published Acupuncture Bronze Model with Modern Medicine Reference (Zhong Xi Hui Can Tong Ren Tu Shuo). He was the pioneer to integrate the knowledge of modern medicine into Chinese acupuncture. In 1927, Zhang Shanlei compiled The New Reference on Channels and Acupuncture Points (Jing Mai Shu Xue Xin Kao Zheng).
Cheng Dan'an, the contemporary acupuncture scholar, made a greater contribution to the development of Chinese acupuncture. He compiled the book titled Chinese Acupuncture Therapeutics (Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Zhi Liao Xue) in 1928. Also, he published Studies on Acupuncture Illustrations (Jing Xue Tu Kao), Notes of Chinese Acupuncture (Zhong Guo Zhen Jiu Xue Jiang Yi), The Essence of Acupuncture (Zhen Jiu Jing Hua) and Explanations on Enlargement of Fourteen Channels (Jiao Zhu Shi Si Jing Fa Hui). D. Cheng was the founding president of Jiangsu Provincial School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the present Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. He was also memeber of Chinese Academy of Sciences in biology and vice-president of All-China Association of Medicine. During that period of time, scholars in China not only carried forward acupuncture knowledge of the past, but also commenced on a trial basis to apply modern science and technology into the study of Chinese acupuncture. In 1934, Tang Shicheng and his colleagues started the research of electric acupuncture, indicating the beginning of the issue in China.
In April of 1945, Bethume International Peace Hospital established an acupuncture department. It was the first time that acupuncture was practised in a general hospital of China. In 1947, the medical department of Jinan Military Command published Practical Acupuncture (Shi Yong Zhen Jiu Xue). In 1947, the Medical School attached to the Health Department of North China People's Government ran acupuncture training courses. These efforts all accelerated the spread of acupuncture knowledge among modern medicine doctors in China.
In 1951, the Acupuncture Therapy Experimental Institute under the Ministry of Public Health was founded. It later became the acupuncture institute under Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Subsequently some provincial, municipal and autonomous regional governments established research institutions in tradtional Chinese medicine, including the research in acupuncture and moxibustion. Acupuncture institutes were also established in a few provinces and cities. Colleges of traditional Chinese medicine have the establishment of teaching and research sections of acupuncture and moxibustion nationwide. Some colleges of traditional Chinese medicine have an acupuncture department. Many hospitals in cities also have acupuncture departments. Some hospitals in rural areas applied acupuncture to treat patients. Nanjing University of TCM, with the help of State Administration of TCM, currently has key areas of acupuncture science and research laboratory in acupuncture at national level. Acupuncture has also been listed as the subject for research and teaching even in many modern medicine colleges and research institutions.
On the basis of carrying forward and developing the ancient knowledge of acupuncture, modern acupuncture research has featured the combination of the knowledge and methodologies into modern science and technology. Prior to 1950's, emphasis was placed on summing up the fundamental knowledge of acupuncture, observing the therapeutic indications of acupuncture, and explaining the theory of acupuncture with modern methodology. In August of 1958, the national forum on traditional Chinese medicine channel theory and acupuncture was held in Shanghai, which enhanced the development of acupuncture studies in China. From late 1950's to 1960's, experts in China made greater efforts in studying acupuncture literature of the ancient times. They made extensive studies in summarizing the therapeutic effects of acupuncture for various diseases. Meanwhile, they promoted the clinical application of acupuncture anesthenia. They also carried out experimental studies in observing the influence of acupuncture treatment to different body systems and organs in an attempt to find out the fundamental functions of acupuncture. In 1971, the Chinese government released the achievements of acupuncture anesthenia in operations. In 1979, the first National Symposium on Acupuncture and Acupuncture Anesthenia was held in Beijing. It was an indication to outside world that acupuncture anesthenia had been carried out widely in China. Since 1970's, more studies were made in different areas such as surgical operations, anesthenia, nerve anotomy, organic chemistry, pain biology, biochemistry, psychology and medical electronics oriented in acupuncture therapies and analgesic mechanism. Focusing on channel sensations, experts approached different way to study the nature of channels. At present, China's achievements in acupuncture including the summarization of knowledge over the past, observation of acupuncture therapeutic effects and application of modern science and technology to acupuncture theory study are taking the lead in the world.
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